Aug 30, 2020 by Thibault Debatty | 607 views
kubernetes is a very powerful system, with a lot of available plugins to handle different situations. That's why tools like minikube exist that handle the whole configuration for you. In this blog post we show you how it works under the hood, and how to manually configure a kubernetes cluster.
For this blog post we will need a debian (or ubuntu) system and we will:
curl -fsSL https://download.docker.com/linux/ubuntu/gpg | sudo apt-key add - sudo add-apt-repository "deb [arch=amd64] https://download.docker.com/linux/ubuntu $(lsb_release -cs) stable" sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install -y docker-ce
We can now install the required kubernetes tools:
sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install -y apt-transport-https curl curl -s https://packages.cloud.google.com/apt/doc/apt-key.gpg | sudo apt-key add - cat <<EOF | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/kubernetes.list deb https://apt.kubernetes.io/ kubernetes-xenial main EOF sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install -y kubelet kubeadm kubectl sudo apt-mark hold kubelet kubeadm kubectl
We also have to disable the swap:
sudo swapoff -a
The kubernetes control-plane are the components that will manage the cluster:
On a real production cluster, they should be installed on multiple nodes, to ensure high-availability. Here we will deploy all the components required for a kubernetes master on a single server. The
--pod-network-cidr option will be used by our overlay network (see below):
sudo kubeadm init --pod-network-cidr=10.244.0.0/16
Test if your node is running correctly:
Kubernetes assume that each container (pod) has a unique, routable IP inside the cluster. The CNI plugin is responsible for providing an IPv4 network between multiple nodes in a cluster. A lot of plugins exist. For this blog post we will use Flannel.
To achieve this goal, Flannel runs a small, single binary agent called flanneld on each host, and is responsible for allocating a subnet lease to each host out of a larger, preconfigured address space. In our example, we will use the network 10.244.0.0/16. Packets are forwarded using one of several backend mechanisms including VXLAN.
kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/coreos/flannel/master/Documentation/kube-flannel.yml
Normally, kubernetes will not run pods on the master node(s). For a small cluster, you can enable the master node using the following command:
kubectl taint nodes --all node-role.kubernetes.io/master-
At the end of the
init command, kubeadm created a token that you can use to add other nodes to your cluster. These join tokens have a limited lifetime (24h by default). You can create new tokens with the following commend (on the master):
kubeadm token create --print-join-command
We can now schedule a simple pod to check everything is running correctly:
cat <<EOF | kubectl apply -f - apiVersion: v1 kind: Pod metadata: name: busybox-sleep spec: containers: - name: busybox image: busybox args: - sleep - "1000000" EOF